Using a Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The texture filter functions provide a statistical view of texture based on the image histogram. These functions. Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (Haralick et al. ) texture is a powerful image feature for image analysis. The glcm package provides a easy-to-use function. -Image Classification-. Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix. (GLCM) The GLCM is created from a gray-scale ▫.

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To control the number of gray levels in the GLCM and the scaling of intensity values, using the NumLevels and the GrayLimits parameters of the graycomatrix function. Explanations and examples are concentrated on use in a landscape scale and perspective for enhancing classification accuracy, particularly in the cases where spatial arrangement of tonal spectral variability provides independent data relevant to the class identification.

GLCM texture features | Kaggle

These statistics provide information about the texture of an image. These functions can provide useful information about the texture of an image but cannot provide information about shape, i.

Also known as uniformity or the angular second moment. Although this tutorial is not published by a gkcm journal, it has undergone extensive peer review by third-party reviewers at the request of the author. For example, if most of the entries in the GLCM are concentrated along the diagonal, the texture is coarse with respect to the specified offset.

However, a single GLCM might not be enough to describe the textural features of the input image. Some features of this site may not work without it.

View Texture tutorial including illustrations, examples and exercises with answers. Call the graycomatrix function specifying the offsets. For example, a single horizontal offset might not be sensitive to texture with a vertical orientation.


To many image analysts, they are a button you push in the software that yields a band whose use improves classification – or not. University of Calgary University Dr. You can also derive several statistical measures from the GLCM. Read in a grayscale image and display it.

For detailed information about these statistics, see the graycoprops reference page. Element 1,3 in the GLCM has the value 0 because there are no instances of two horizontally adjacent pixels with the values 1 and 3.

A basic bibliography is provided for research that has promoted the field of remote sensing GLCM texture; research projects that simply make use of it are not systematically covered. You specify the statistics you want when you tuorial the graycoprops function.

Correlation] ; title ‘Texture Correlation as a function of offset’ ; xlabel ‘Horizontal Offset’ ylabel ‘Correlation’ The plot contains peaks at offsets 7, 15, 23, and Correlation Measures the joint probability occurrence of the specified pixel pairs.

The graycomatrix function creates a gray-level co-occurrence matrix GLCM by calculating how often a pixel with the intensity gray-level value i occurs in a specific spatial relationship to a pixel with the value j. By default, graycomatrix uses scaling to reduce the number of intensity values in grayscale image from to eight. The number of gray levels determines the size of the GLCM. Refereed No Of use generally for students of intermediate or advanced undergraduate remote sensing classes, and graduate classes in remote sensing, landscape ecology, GIS and other fields using rasters as the basis for analysis.

The GLCM Tutorial Home Page

When citing, please give the current version and its date. JavaScript is disabled for your browser. For example, you can define an array of offsets that specify four directions horizontal, vertical, and tutrial diagonals and four distances. The “NEXT” button at the bottom of the page takes you through the tutorial in sequence.


Because the processing required to calculate a GLCM for the full dynamic range of an image is prohibitive, graycomatrix scales the input image. It leads users through the practical construction and use of a small sample tutoeial, with the aim of deep understanding of the purpose, capabilities and limitations of this set of descriptive statistics.

Calculating GLCM Texture

Background information is provided to answer the questions arising from 15 years of use of the tutorial, and increased practical experience of the author in teaching and research. When you are done, click the answer link to see the answer and calculations. When you calculate statistics from these GLCMs, you can take tutorual average. To create multiple GLCMs, specify an array of offsets to the graycomatrix function.

Metadata Show full item record. Statistic Description Contrast Measures the local variations in the gray-level co-occurrence matrix.

Subject remote sensing spatial descriptors spatial statistics texture GLCM educational resource. Specifying the Offsets By default, the graycomatrix function creates a single GLCM, with the spatial relationship, or offsetdefined as two horizontally adjacent pixels. In addition, many users have discovered computational errors and pointed out areas of improvement that have gone into subsequent versions of the tutorial in a Wiki-like process gutorial the software.

For this reason, graycomatrix can create multiple GLCMs for a single input image.