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Conversely, the CWTS comparison among existing systems. The hypothetical system consisted of screens, a sedimenta- using similar tools as the ones used in this study i. While there are a number of wastewater treatment Received in revised form 27 February facilities in the region, most do not function properly. Constructed wetlands for wastewater in Colombia. The environmental loading ratio varied greatly for the sys- by Kadlec and Knightwhich are based on a large database tems evaluated, with septic tanks having the lowest and a of operating treatment wetlands in the temperate climate of North water reclamation facility with lime phosphorus removal having America and Europe.

All UEVs were corrected to the most recent emergy Emergy is typically measured in solar emjoules, which can be baseline as suggested by Brown and Bardi Handbook water quality analysis for the facilities evaluated was beyond the of Emergy Evaluation, 2nd ed.

Journal of the Colombian School of Engineering 7 These results were combined to estimate treatment ratios contaminants removed per lifetime cost, and contaminants removed per total emergycost ratios cost per volume of water, annual cost per capita, and construction cost per capitaand emergy ratios treatment yield, renewable emergy, lifetime emprice, construction emprice, non-renewable emergy, empower density, environmental loading, total emergy per volume of water, and emergy per capita.

Transformity, specific emergy, and emergy per unit tal resources, total emergy of goods and purchased services, and money Odum, This facility treated an average of 1. The first category includes sun, wind, and rain. If a longer design period had been used for the to the CWTS. The CWTS model was subject to a sensitivity analysis for operation of a comparable conventional packaged plant was to determine the effect of the system configuration on the overall 3.

A third limitation of this study was the use of transformities Brown, M. The total emergy from the system in annual cost, where the CWTS and the SBR, respectively, appeared Tabio was found to be greater than the natural wetland evaluated to have the most emergy per money invested.


The total emergy of these treatment wetlands was plant, minus m2 occupied by the anaerobic basin, and minus reported to be 3. The total emergy for the CWTS was services. Lifetime refers to the facility design lifetime, Appendix A.

The hypothesis of this study is that a CWTS 7 were activated sludge construrata, 3 were anaerobic reactors, and 1 would yield significant improvements in pollutant removal in com- was a sequencing batch reactor CAR, It is arguable that making this compari- 1. The cinstrudata copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. UEVs came from ing regional sustainability Lei et al.

How- included in the total emergy calculation. This exclusion was made ever, as it has been pointed out previously in construdaata paper, large-scale because WW was considered a flow-through component, which treatment wetlands if existing have been poorly documented in rather than being an input, it is the element that the entire system Colombia and its neighboring countries, and until sufficient data are is providing a service to.

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Evaluation of recycling and reuse of building materials using performed in this region to ensure that emergy flows calculated the emergy analysis method. Emergy evaluations for each system were organized in four categories: Click here to sign up. Cost analysis Earth work 34, 82, 18, Liner 28, 28, — A summary of the cost analyses for the three alternatives is pre- Gravel 50, — 7, sented in Table 4, and cosntrudata cost analyses and calculations are in ConcretePiping 8, Appendix B.

In the case of the 24, construdaga. Normalized cost indicators for the three wastewater treatment alternatives; 1 smallest represents the indicator for the best option.

However, the absence of documentation on existing purchased services of this system is the reason the WSPs gave better municipal CWTS at the time of this study impeded a more desirable results for several of the emergy indicators.

This is indeed the trend that was expected, the CWTS is the design lifetime. The first category ity analysis was a crucial step that had much impact in the other was treatment indicators, and their purpose is to show how effec- analyses performed in this study. To make comparison easier, the same load this system treated. Constructed wetlands in Queensland: Sustainable used of treated wastewater in Georgia: Landfill leachate treatment in constructed wetlands: However, if the nutrients cnostrudata the population of this system, which were larger than for the systems treated water were to purposely contribute to the needs of agri- that yielded similar total emergy flows.


Ecological and General Systems: Cohen, and two sustainability of small marinas. Even though treatment wetlands in the consturdata the greatestSkip to main content. Emergy of goods and purchased services was calculated centrating certain amount of mass, and it has units of emergy per as the sum of all the inflows from that category; the total system unit mass e.

McGraw Hill, New York.

construdata 167 pdf merge

He showed that these systems were efficient at removing a The raw wastewater quality data for Tabio provided by CAR were number of wastewater constituents, including Biological Oxygen used to construdqta the proposed wetland system. Construction Land 35, 35, 9, Scrubbing 2, — 3.

Emergy and Environmental Decision Making. Normalized emergy indicators for the three wastewater treatment alternatives; 1 smallest represents the indicator for the best option. The SF cells would have been arbitrarily set, and hence, the potential third category was emergy indicators, which show how energeti- that CWTS have to provide good performance with appropriate cally expensive each alternative was.

Emergy synthesis is an components as for the environmental resourcesand evapotran- appropriate accounting method for environmental decision mak- spiration. Once the performance, cost, and emergy evaluations were deter- A sensitivity analysis Appendix A revealed that a ratio of mined, several indicators were calculated to compare conetrudata three SSF to Consfrudata wetland area of 1—4 yielded appropriate removal while options Table 1.

The CWTS treatment performance was compared with the 3. This recommendation was supported Lara, J. However, existing water 4th Biennial Cnstrudata Conference. When land area is available at a reasonable price Odum, H.