Unlike the first English translation in , this edition contains the text corresponding to Brentano’s original edition. First chapter of Brentano’s Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint, setting out the philosophical basis of his work. BRENTANO’S PSYCHOLOGY FROM AN EMPIRICAL STANDPOINT: ITS Abstract. While Brentano’s most important philosophical writings were most certainly.

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Stzndpoint details of Brentano’s account of time-consciousness changed over the time, owing to changes in his overall position. Brentano was strongly influenced by Aristotle and the Scholastics as well as by the empiricist and positivist movements of the early nineteenth century.

Thus there is no shortage of important tasks for psychologists of this school, among whom are, at the present time, men who have made themselves pre-eminently of service to the advancement of science. They are not, however, an adequate representation of this brsntano, and they give us knowledge of it only in a very incomplete sense.

Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint

The Legacy of Franz BrentanoChicago: And so psychology appears to be the fundamental condition of human progress in precisely those things which, above all, constitute human dignity. One brengano particular is Fechner, who named this branch of science “psychophysics” and called the famous law which he established in this connection the “Psychophysical Law.

Logic, according to Brentano, is the practical discipline that is concerned with judgments; i. In short, according to Brentano, an object is beautiful if a presentation that is directed at it arouses a correct, positive emotion, i.

In his Psychology Brentano held that two presentations can differ only in the object, towards which they are directed. Some Brentano scholars have recently argued that this immanent reading of the intentionality thesis is too strong.

Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPaperswith links to its database. It is a different matter if we compare the goals which each of the two sciences pursue. When we seem to have more than one mental act at a time, like when we hear a melody while tasting a sip of red wine and enjoying the beautiful view from the window, all these mental phenomena melt into one, they become moments or, to stick with Brentano’s terminology, divisives of a collective.

Admittedly he sets forth his proofs for the immortality of the soul in less detail than Plato, but it would be a mistake to conclude from this that the problem was any less important to him.


In this sense we could characterise psychology, as others have already done, as the science of the future, i. For this will be the position of psychology once it reaches maturity and is capable of effective action. Prolegomena zur reinen Logik. In the next moment I hear the second tone, but am still directed towards the first one, which is modified as past, though. Scruton believes that the obscurity of the passage is “compounded by Brentano’s description of intentionality as the mark which distinguishes mental phenomena from physical phenomenathe latter being described, not as objective features of the natural world, but as appearances.

And once again, chemistry had already achieved many splendid results while physiology was yet to be born. If someone wanted to compare the relative value of the scientific field which we have just described with that of the natural sciences, using as a measuring stick only and exclusively the interest aroused at the present time by these two types of investigations, psychology would undoubtedly be overshadowed.

What is meant by “science of mental phenomena” or “science of physical phenomena”? Like my thinking about the city of Paris, all these acts are intentionally directed towards an object, with the difference, however, that their objects do not really exist.

After the fourth phase, a new period begins with a creative phase of renewal. Das GenieLeipzig: Brentano was not very fond of his students’ attempts to resolve these difficulties, mainly because he rejected their underlying ontological assumptions.

Of course, Albert Lange interprets this declaration as a mockery, and he may very likely be right, for it is known that Hume did not elsewhere scorn the use of malicious irony as a weapon. Briefe und Abhandlungen aus dem Nachlassed. Print Hardcover and Paperback. I never can catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception, When my perceptions are removed for any time, as by sound sleep; so long am I insensible of myself, and may truly be said not to exist.

Hence natural science may not be defined as the science of bodies nor may psychology be defined as the science of the soul. As we have noted, psychology has already made attempts to solve this problem, and it does not seem that all its efforts in that direction have been without success.

For, he says, sounding exactly like a modern psychologist, such an investigation is not the province of one who studies the soul, but of one who studies the body. Thus, while judgments and emotions consist in taking either a positive or a negative stance, the value of a presentation is always positive, but comes in degrees: Empirical and Experimental Psychology.


Title page of the first edition. But this remains to be investigated, and the investigation of this question, which is the job of the psychologist because it deals with laws of comparative judgement, could yield a result quite different from what was expected. And this is another reason for conferring the higher value upon the science of mental phenomena.

Pages to import images to Wikidata Articles containing German-language text. But even from the point of view of practical significance – and perhaps this is what is most surprising – psychological questions are in no way inferior to those which occupy the natural sciences.

In a judgment we accept or deny the existence of the presented object. History of Western Philosophy. He rather introduces a new term to reformulate the difficulties.

We have seen what kind of knowledge the natural scientist is able to attain. Consequently, no one can really doubt that a mental state which he perceives in himself exists, and that it exists just as he perceives it.

The words “phenomenon” or “appearance” are often used in opposition to “things which really and truly exist. They are true in themselves.

Franz Brentano

Chrudzimski and Smith, This interpretation, however, does not pay due attention to the fact that according to Brentano, inner perception is not a self-standing mental phenomenon of a higher level, but rather a structural moment of every mental phenomenon.

Chisholm, and However, the results that Brentano produces from his method in Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint have been described as “deadly dull and nearly vacuous.

In contrast to that which really and truly exists, they are mere phenomena. This standpoint is clearly mirrored in his empirical approach to psychology. Nicholas Shea – – Philosophy Compass 8 5: With this, he wants to suggest that they do not have actual existence, but that we can make judgments about real things that are correct and contain references to substances and accidents.