Bahya Ben Joseph Ibn Pakuda, also known as Behay and Bahie, was an 11th Bahya was the author of the first Jewish treatise on ethics, written in Arabic in. Philosophy and Mysticism in Bahya ibn Paquda’s “Duties of the Heart”. Diana Lobel. pages | 6 x 9. Cloth | ISBN | $s | Outside. Rabbi Saadyah wrote the first Jewish work of philosophy in Rabbi Bachaya wrote the first work of Jewish ethics more than a century later. Rabbi Saadya.

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If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. There was a problem with your submission. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. Bahya combined in a rare degree great depth of emotion, a vivid poetic imagination, the power of eloquence, and beauty of diction with a penetrating intellect; and he was therefore well fitted to write a work the main object of which bxhya not to argue about and defend the doctrines of Judaism, but to appeal to the sentiments and to stir and elevate the hearts of the people.

It springs from a consideration of the low origin of man, the vicissitudes of life, and one’s own failings and shortcomings compared with the duties of man and the greatness of God; so that all pride even in regard to one’s merits is banished. And one must plummet it.

Rabbi Saadyah wrote the first Jewish work of philosophy in God’s benefits, however, rest upon love without any consideration paqud self.

He is regarded by…. In Portuguese by Samuel b. The world is beautifully arranged and furnished like a great house, of which the sky forms the ceiling, the earth the floor, the stars the lamps, and man is the proprietor, to whom the three kingdoms—the animal, the vegetable, and the mineral—are submitted for use, each of these being composed of the four elements.

Even the student of the Law was often prompted only by selfish and worldly motives. Men, as a rule, fail to appreciate the mercies of God, either because their insatiable longing for pleasure deprives them of the sense of gratitude, or because they are spoiled by fortune, or dissatisfied and disappointed in their expectation of life.


Some, in order to lead a life devoted to the higher world, flee this world altogether, and live as hermits far away from all civilization, quite contrary to the design of the Creator; others retire from the world’s turmoil and strife and live a secluded life in their own homes; a third class, which comes nearest to the precepts of the Law, participates in the world’s struggles and pursuits, but leads a life of abstinence and moderation, regarding this world as a preparation for a higher one.

In nature likewise, the consideration of the sublimity of the heavens and of the motion of all things, the interchange of light and darkness, the variety of color in the realm of creation, the awe with which the sight of living man inspires the brute, the wonderful fertility of each grain of corn in the soil, the large supply of those elements that are essential to organic life, such as air and water, and the lesser frequency of those things that form the objects of industry and commerce in the shape of nourishment and raiment —all these and similar observations tend to fill man’s soul with gratitude and praise for the providential love and wisdom of the Creator.

Help us improve this article! Rabbi Saadya flourished during the twilight of once glorious Babylonian Jewry; Sephardic Jewry continued its magnificent history in Spainreflecting the shift from Asia to Europe, where R.

Bahya ibn Paquda

Three attributes of God are essential, though we derive them from creation: Many Jewish writers familiar with his work consider him an original thinker of high rank. And what marvelous foresight is paqud in the way the infant is sheltered in the womb against the harmful influences of the atmosphere and nourished like a plant until it enters life, when the blood in the mother’s breast is transformed for it into nurturing milk. Dayyan and philosopher; flourished at Saragossa, Spain, in the first half of the eleventh century.

Yet it is not the highest mode of worship, as it may be prompted by fear of divine punishment or by a desire for reward; or it may be altogether formal, external, and void of that spirit which steels the soul against every temptation and trial.

Not subject to any change or accident, it is the root of all things, and has no similarity to any other thing. Discover some of the most interesting and trending topics of She is the author of Between Mysticism and Philosophy: For those that truly love their God the commandments of the Torah are rather few in number, their whole life being consecrated to the God with whom they are one.


Both are abnormal and injurious: Paqura can the existence of the world be due to mere chance. But, as has been said by one of the sages, “True philosophy is to know oneself. He is often referred to as Rabbeinu Bachya. A Sufi-Jewish Dialogue is the first scholarly book in English about a tremendously influential work of medieval Jewish thought and will be of interest to readers working in comparative literature, philosophy, and religious studies, particularly as reflected in the interplay of the civilizations of pzquda Middle East.


The Law therefore shows the correct mode of serving God by following “a middle way,” alike remote from sensuality and contempt of the world. No one would without sufficient cause ascribe a letter written altogether in the same style and handwriting to more than one writer.

Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact bqhya if any clarifications are needed. Bahya emerges from her analysis as a figure so steeped in Islamic traditions that an Arabic reader could easily think he was a Muslim, yet the traditional Jewish seeker has always looked to him as a fountainhead of Jewish devotion.

True repentance shows itself in fear of the deserved divine punishment, in contrition of soul, in tears and sighs, in outward signs of grief—such as moderation of sensual enjoyment and display, and foregoing pleasures otherwise legitimate —and in a humble, prayerful spirit and an ibb contemplation of the soul’s future. It consists of a variety of mystical paths that are designed to ascertain the nature of humanity and of God and bahua facilitate the experience…. The author has a superb sense of Arabic, Sufi mystical psychology, ign the extraordinary dialogue sometimes openly acknowledged, often left unacknowledged among Jewish, Islamic, Christian, and Greek traditions at the time of Ibn Paquda.