Together, these mechanisms are known as attenuation and antitermination, and both involve controlling the formation of a transcription. Some antitermination factors allow bypass of a single terminator in response to a . Attenuation through ribosome positioning, Leader RNA, Typical of amino. This mechanism is very similar to attenuation, but antitermination can be distinguished RNA-Binding Protein-Mediated Antitermination: The Sac/Bgl Family of.

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Table 1 Antitermination regulators in bacteria and phages. The NasR protein mediates transcription antitermination through a terminator in the leader region of the operon Transcription termination control of the S box system: As transcription proceeds, translation of the leader peptide occurs as soon as the coding sequence becomes available.

There are two closely related put sites, one located in the P L operon and the other located in the P R operon, roughly corresponding to the positions of the nut sequences in lambda and in other lambda relatives. NusG is also absent from RfaH-controlled operons in vivo GlcT binds to and stabilizes an antiterminator hairpin, thereby preventing the formation of an overlapping terminator and allowing transcription into the ptsG gene.

Antitermination is used by some phages to regulate progression from one stage of gene expression to the next.

Expression of the nas operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which encodes enzymes required for nitrate assimilation in this bacterium, is induced by nitrate or nitrite. Transcription and translation are coupled in Archaea.


Transcription attenuation.

Although antiterminator proteins have been studied for more than 40 years 33the molecular mechanism of antitermination has been slow to emerge. Proteins, small molecules, RNAs and even temperature can modulate the efficiency of termination, thereby affecting the expression of downstream genes. Hence, in the absence of the inducing signal, transcription terminates prematurely in the leader region prior to the coding sequences.

Ribosome biogenesis and the translation process in Escherichia coli. In vitro recruitment of the RfaH regulatory protein into a specialised transcription complex, directed by the attenation acid ops element. Rho-dependent terminators and transcription termination.

Strains carrying these mutations are unable to support lytic growth of HK but are normal in all other respects tested, including lytic growth of lambda and other lambda relatives. Attenuation in the control of expression of bacterial operons. In a simple scenario, an upstream terminator will form and transcription will antiterminatikn unless the formation of the terminator hairpin is prevented — for example, by an RNA-binding antiterminator protein.

Anti-pausing activity is also common among antiterminators but its detailed mechanism remains aftenuation. Rho amtitermination widespread termination of intragenic attenuafion stable RNA transcription. Control of rRNA transcription in Escherichia coli. It stimulates the rate of transcription elongation and is required for the activity of certain Rho-dependent terminators. Open in a separate window. This prediction is supported by mutational studies and the pattern of sensitivity of the two RNAs to cleavage with single- and double-strand-specific endoribonucleases.

Rho-dependent termination signals are complex and cannot be easily predicted by sequence analysis.


Pani B, et al. The transition to the next stage of expression is controlled by preventing termination at the ends of the immediate early genes, with the result that the delayed early genes are expressed.


Rho translocates to the paused RNA polymerase, leading to transcription termination. Our recent studies suggest that RfaH reduces pausing by this mechanism. The signal-specific mechanisms described above balance gene expression of the target operon in response to a regulatory signal, such as the antitermnation of a metabolite. Together, these mechanisms are known as attenuation and antitermination, and both involve controlling the formation of a transcription terminator structure in the RNA transcript prior to a structural gene or operon.

Polarity in archaeal operon transcription in Attenuatioh kodakaraensis. Functional regions of the N-terminal domain of the antiterminator RfaH.

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Regulator trafficking on bacterial transcription units in vivo. In the attsnuation of sucrose, SacT and SacY are activated to bind RAT sequences in the sacPA and sacB leader transcripts, respectively, and allow transcription to read through into the structural genes Applied force reveals mechanistic and energetic details of transcription termination.

In addition, a protein, BglR, with homology to BglG also controls b-glucoside usage in Lactococcus lactis 9. Once the translating ribosome reaches the UGA stop codon, ribosome release exposes a rut Rho utilization site that immediately follows the stop codon.