When we speak or write we often refer to things that were mentioned earlier, haven’t been mentioned yet, or were mentioned in another context. Cataphoric Reference: A cataphoric reference unit refers to another unit that is introduced later on in the text/speech. To understand the unit refered to by a. Anaphoric and Cataphoric References. Anaphoric Reference. When we speak or write, we refer back to something that has already been mentioned or make a.
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Cataphoric referencewhich means ctaphoric word in a text refers to another later in the text and you need to look forward to understand, subsequent words. What could be a better source of authority? Sounds like Swann alone. We expect that this blog will be useful for the community on-line.
My answer offers an extract from the current gold standard in reference grammars CGEL and a very good prescriptive grammar for English language learners Swan. The book refers to Moby Dick. Anaphoric reference means that a word refers back to another word for its meaning, previously mentioned words.
Either word is possible, but this is better. Michael went to the bank. Cataphoric reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something mentioned later in the discourse. The book was there on the table.
An ELT Notebook: An ELT Glossary : Anaphoric, Cataphoric and Exophoric Reference
The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language in its section p on anaphoric uses of this and that with noun phrases as antecedents states:. Leave a comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google.
Language Description: Anaphoric and Cataphoric References
The page is dedicated to publish any information about grammatical english and some exercises with its translating. And one family sewed fake Russian uniforms for 4 themselves ; then, they pretended to be Russian soldiers and simply drove through a checkpoint. I also engaged in research In general, which would you prefer for a position on evolution, or nuclear physics, or geology, or grammar: The use of exophoric reference requires some shared knowledge between two speakers, or between writer and reader s.
Anaphoric reference often makes use of the definite article thebecause one of the functions of the qnd article is to indicate that something has already been mentioned. He sat down at the table and took a small box from his pocket. Shoe 25k 4 36 Sign up using Email and Password.
In contrast, Swan in Practical English Usage p does reverence a slight difference: It’s true that this is used in cataphoric reference and that hardly ever; but they are also both widely used in anaphor, the basic difference then being that this is proximal, that distal.
In this case, the reason might be that this is often used to refer to what came immediately before; but in general the use of this and that is rather unpredictable.
It also refers to something that both speakers know about perhaps the dinner. Thisas the more present or proximal pronoun, may also better convey the sense that what is being referred to is relevant in the present context for example, an application letter or cv. Anaphoric reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something mentioned earlier in the discourse.
I have also attempted to justify my slight personal preference for this in the context in which I assume the OP will be using the sentence. Some people dug tunnels; 2 others tried crashing through checkpoints with cars, trucks, or busses; 3 still others flew out in small airplanes or balloons. Post as a guest Name.
ANAPHORIC VS. CATAPHORIC REFERENCES
Email Required, but never shown. The object felt heavy in his hands. Exophoric reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something outside the discourse.